My Stack of Sources

1. Cracked  Article; what’s better than to go straight to where this whole research paper started. This article is mainly about environmental myths, but I singled out the one that interested me the most which is about global climate change. The article states that most people believe that since we experience winter that means climate change doesn’t exist, which is a myth. I’m probably going to quote this article simply because I like how the author responds to it.

2. Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Article; this article looks at carbon dioxide levels throughout the years, which is extremely important to climate change studies since carbon is the main greenhouse gas causing the “warming”. It’s also full of good statistics!

3. Precise Monitoring of Global Temperature Trends from Satellites Article; this one also looks at changes in temperatures involving fluctuations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, however it has more current statistics and the satellites provide more accurate and detailed information.

4. Melting Ice Spurs Wild Weather Article; this article brings the jet stream into play. Talking about how because of the warming ice in the arctic is melting which is messing with the jet stream causing us the get hit my extreme weather.

5. Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast by David Archer; the book is split into three parts one being about the greenhouse effect, the other about the carbon cycle, and the last one about the forecast for global warming. It was a good find!

6. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing by John Houghton; this book is awesome. It has chapters on climates of the Earth’s past, the impact of climate change, and one about why we should be concerned. It also goes over topics seen in the last book I listed.

7. Global Warming: Myth or Reality? The Erring Ways of Climatology by Marcel Leroux; compared to my other two books this one goes into greater detail, it’s also twice as thick! It talks about the notions of global warming and the observational facts, besides the past climates.

8. Climate Change Might Just Be Driving the Historic Cold Snap Article; this article was included in the Cracked article and I thought it went nicely with my #4 source. It talks about the polar vortex that occurred a few months back and talks about the jet stream causing it.


Getting Down To the Facts

Searching for sources is not always fun… and when I say not always fun, It’s not really fun at all. But in order to do a research paper it is a must that you need to find souces. Here is a list of a few of the sources I have found for my research paper:

Article 1: The first article that I will definitely be using in my project is the cracked article itself.  “6 Ridiculous Science Myths You Learned in Kindergarten” is where I started my process. This article itself has many other sources in which it pulled it’s own information from. These sources are listed throughout the cracked article. The main claim of this article is that it is a myth that milk is good for your bones. The cracked article explains why this previously known fact is a myth and pulls information for other sources which are located in throughout the cracked article.

Article 2: “Controlled High Meat Diets Do Not Affect Calcium Retention or Indices of Bone Status in Healthy Postmenopausal Women” is another source that I found. One helpful thing about this specific article is that at the bottom it lists other articles citing this article. The main subject of this article is high meat diets and how they affect  calcium retention and indices in bone health. This article is not really about the main claim of the cracked article, but instead brings in another aspect. The article is talking about high meat diets and how that plays a role with calcium and bone health. The writers did an experiment testing controlled high and low meat diets. The reason I might use this article in my project is because it is different from all the other and talks about other side points that can in the end add to the project as a whole. The article also provides a lot of interesting information throughout the text.

Article 3: “Milk Matters: for strong bones, for lifelong health” is another one of my sources that I think will be very helpful in my project. This source is not actually just a plain article, it is an eBook. This is probably one of the most helpful soures that I found. The eBook is from the U.S Department of Health and Human Services. This source provides a plethora of information about milk, calcium and bone health. I really find this eBook helpful and interesting because the information is straight forward. There are also multiple pictures and charts that add the the eBook and make it that much better. The main subject of the article is about how milk and calcium ARE good for bones. When relating this source back to the cracked article, this source is going against what the cracked article is stating. This source is saying how milk is good for your bones. I think this is a good source to use, because it shows that opposing side to the cracked article and does so by using a lot of interesting and helpful information.

Article 4: “Calcium: It’s Good For Your Bones.” As the title reads, this article is all about calcium. I found this article by searching through the library database. This article is located on It contains a lot of facts and talks about how you can get more calcium into your diet. I like how this article talks strictly about calcium and what it does for bones because there is a lot of helpful information and after all, milk contains calcium. This article also challenges the cracked article.

Article 5: “Milk minerals (including trace elements) and bone health.” I found this article from the library database. What is cool about this article is that it contains a long list of other sources at the end. Like some of the other articles I skimmed through, this article talks about osteoporosis and ways to prevent it from happening. The focus of this article besides bone diseases such as osteoporosis, is the importance of ‘milk minerals.’ In relation to the cracked article, like many of the other articles I found, this one goes against was the cracked article is saying.

Article 6: “Got Calcium?” Once again this article came from the library database. You can also find this article by searching on or Good Housekeeping. This article talks a lot about calcium and vitamin D. It is also very helpful because it gives out tips and other information about how to have  good bone health. This article goes against the cracked article.

Article 7: “The dairy debate: Does milk build stronger bones?” This article actually comes from the cracked article itself. The main focus of this article is questioning whether or not milk helps to build stronger bones. What is interesting about this article is that its not saying that milk isn’t good for you bones, but is basically stating that there are other efficient ways to receive calcium and such minerals besides milk. This article backs up the cracked article in a sense considering it is listed in the cracked article itself. However, this article is not stating that milk is not ‘not’ good for your bones, so it really gives you something to think about.

Article 8: “Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence.” This is another article that is directly from the cracked article. Research is done in this article to prove if dairy products are better for bone health than other foods that contain calcium. This article backs up the cracked article because it is basically saying that dairy products to not bring anymore of a consistent benefit to children and young adult bone health then do other foods that contain calcium. However, once again this article is not necessarily  stating that milk is not good for bones.

A Source’s Tale

I sit listening to my 80’s music and think how do I start this blog? I then decided to start it with the previous sentence for two reasons one: why not! Two: it is a mild form of procrastination, as is every sentence up til now. I type onward to a more serious blog…probably. So to start the story.


This image is to set the mood.

Once upon a time there was an article posted on a noble website. This honorable website is in search of truth, justice and the debunkment of myths (Debunkment: the process of revealing a falsehood). It is called

There are many tales I could tell, but one takes precedence tonight. It is a compelling story of our protagonist and an evil antagonist The MythThe Myth’s evil method of the destruction of truth is that…*Pause for effect*… Science was dead in the Middle Ages



Never fear! This injustice will not stand because look! Up yonder hill is and his merry band of sources ready to fight The Myth until it is no more. They charge down the hill in a blurred mass of shining armor and justice wielding weapons. They reach The Myththe battle is almost won! Our heroes taste the sweet and intoxicating taste of victory but wait a twist in our tale! The Myth is a Malignant Magician that has multiplied. He and his multiples have fled to all corners of the universe with their power of dissaperation. and his merry band of sources must split up and stop The Myth before irrevocable damage is done.

Our first source poetically named Sacerdotal Source (Sacerdotal: priestly, pertaining to priestly interests), has found his foe. They square up for a duel to debunkment or death. The Myth’s weapon of choice ignorance. Sacerdotal Source chooses to arm himself with Beowulf. The duel begins! Beowulf slices through The Myth’s ignorance with ease. *Beowulf is an epic that was translated and rewritten by a monk in the Middle Ages. I plan to use this source to prove’s point that monks were responsible for the preservation and translation of many literary works that would have other wise been lost* The victor: Beowulf! But wait another source has tracked down The Myth


Our next sources are twins. They are the, Sauterelle Sources (Sauterelle: mason’s tool for making angles). They chase down The Myth and corner him. Their weapon of justice is the mighty Gothic Cathedral! The battle is over before it even began. *I plan on using the book The Gothic Cathedral by Otto von Simpson and The Gothic Enterprise  by Robert A. Scott. The Gothic Enterprise is an online book I found on JSTOR. The article does not use Gothic Cathedrals as a way to disprove Science was Dead in the Middle ages, but I am including it for several reasons. One being I plan on talking about Cathedral Schools and I think it would be beneficial for my paper to include backgrounds of the cathedrals these schools were in. Also no one can look at these architectural masterpieces and deny that the Middle Ages was still an age were progress was made in the area of science. Both books discuss the process of building the Cathedrals.* Two of the Multiplying Myths are down for the count.


Yes, I did just bring this image back for its third appearance in my blogs.

Our next sources have searched far and wide to find The Myth. They have witnessed the destruction left in the wake of the fleeing Mythbut finally through perseverance the Scholarch Sources (Scholarch: head of a school) has found its opponent. The Scholarch Sources arm themselves with knowledge and education. The Myth cowers before their might and surrenders because he know he cannot win. *My sources for this part of the story are The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages by Edward Grant and Medieval Science and Technology by Elspeth Whitney. These two books give details over the first schools (Cathedral Schools and there legacy the University). The book by Edward Grant gives additional information over some of the early masters of the schools. This information coincides with’s claim that “universities were popping up all over Europe.”* 


Many multiples of The Malignant Myth have been dealt with, but still two more are at large wreaking havoc. Our next sources take us back to a time when Athens was still a prominent Greek city. -What? You say. How can this be? I thought we were discussing the Middle Ages?! Allow me to explain- OurSesquipedalian Sources (Sesquipedalian: Tending to use long or cumbersome words) caught up with The Myth when he stopped to spread his lies about the Middle Ages. The Myth thought about fighting but realized it was a losing battle and chose to surrender. The Sesquipedalian Sources accepted his defeat and tied him up with translated Greek and Arabic works. -Aha! That is where Athens comes in- The Sesquipedalian Sources are two different sources with two very different strengths, this is why they work so well together. *I plan on using the book Science in the Middle Ages by David C. Lindberg to talk about the revival and translation of Greek texts. This is important to my paper because the translated texts were the main curriculum in the Cathedral Schools and universities. My other source is the book Medicine before Science by Roger French. I put this source with Science in the Middle Ages because the translated works of Aristotle was a major part of the curriculum for medical students. I include Roger French’s  book to give support to’s claim that their were doctors in the Middle Ages*

Finally the merry band of sources bring their prisoners The Multiplied Myth back to their valiant leader to face trial for his evil-doings. 


Acknowledgements : First to the internet thank you for providing exhaustless information. I relied heavily upon you this blog and you never failed me. Next to Mr. Tunningly for giving me inspiration for this blog in the form of Blog #9 Assignment Sheet. To Spotify for keeping my energy flowing with your amazing playlists. And finally to all my sources who inspired my characters and gave me valuable information. Without you this blog would not have happened.

A note from the author: It was in this blog that I discovered how to change the colors of the text, which I took full advantage of (if you know your rainbows you might recognize the pattern!). Also this blog post took me a ridiculously long time! Finally is one of my sources, so there is in fact eight in total. As for the names of the sources, each one pertains to the actual source I plan to use, except the last one. I put that one in for the sheer irony of it. Also I found every one of those words on the internet, I had never heard of them before tonight. A few final parting words: Good Night and did anyone catch the Harry Potter reference?!

Rounding turn 4, headed for the checkered flag

The sources I have found range from newspaper stories, to journal articles, to  research studies. Let’s get right into it.

The first, the initial cracked article that caught my attention titled “3 reasons why people think the NBA is as rigged as wrestling” by Alex Schmidt. It simply points out the 3 major reasons people doubt the integrity of the National Basketball Association. The one that made me really wonder was the video attached below.


Ever seen this guy before. Probably the most famous referee of all time following his betting scandal. In his book, “Personal Foul: a first person account of the scandal that rocked the NBA” Donaghy gives his side of the story. I plan on using excerpts from the book in my paper as the first person account is very relieble information.

A similar source is the news article following the scandal. Titled “Donaghy under investigation for betting on NBA games”, the newspaper article gives important information about Donaghy’s experience as a referee and game trends of the games he officiated. This article does not take a stand on whether the NBA is fixed or not, but describes some important details about donaghy and his career as an official.

Also related to the ESPN article is another from Business Insider entitled “Here’s why the conspiracy theorists think the NBA is rigged” points out some strange coincidences that could have definitely been affected by the head of the League. This source is very closely related to the article; even the names are similar.

The next is an article from the European Sports Management Quarterly (thats a thing?) that provides a “Starting Point for Measuring Basketball Referee Bias and Impact on Team Performance” as the title implies. It looks into the past 7 seasons of dallas Mavericks basketball, testing referee bias towards team with an overbearing owner such as Mark Cuban. In 7 years, they found no inconsistencies of unfair calls against the Mavericks despite their very colored owner and fanatic.



Mark Cuban with his championship trophy

“Another Foul Called on the NBA” is an article in the Risk Management journal about the recent trying times for the basketball world. It talks about the questions raised by skeptics and the disinterest of fans in recent years. These give the commissioner reason to fix games in order to improve ratings and increase fan interest. Long shot maybe, but it kinda makes sense.

There’s another book I plan on using in my paper called “Larceny Games”. Brian Tuhoy writes about illegal game fixing citing the NBA specifically. I feel like having some evidence of illegal game fixing in other sports wouldn’t hurt the claim that the NBA is rigged. This could very easily help prove the article’s claim.


In an article in Advertising Age called ” NBA’s Stern gets it: Brand image is the key to game plan.” The article polls regular citizens and their thoughts on the the probably that the NBA fixes games. These statistics could be very useful in my paper and relate to the article showing that there is a large group of people that agree with the claim.

Possibly the most influential article to my paper is called “A subperfect game; Profitable biases of NBA referees”. The phrase that stuck the most with me was “profitable biases” because after all this whole claim is based on the NBA needing to make more money. When TV ratings decline, the NBA must do what they can to raise them again. The same couple teams are fighting for a championship each year, the NBA declines trade requests, and referees’ integrity have been questioned for years.

As If I Haven’t Told You Enough About My Sources.

“Annotated Bibliography”


Hahah.. okay okay, here it is for real though. 

Cracked Article:

Medline Plus Article:

Mayo Clinic Article:

PDF File:

  • JAMA Patient Page: Concussion(American Medical Association) – PDF.
  • it is explaining and backing up the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. Many of these sites are saying the same things about these areas of concussions. I am curious as to where the myth started more so now, because these sites are making it obvious that rest is key for a concussion. I mean, given the type of concussion. Obviously if there are massive serious symptoms like the pages discuss then seek medical help first but if you are just having a mild concussion at home that is treatable without medical help, then sleep.


CDC Government Official Page:

  • Now, since every concussion is different to each individual, they give TIPS  on how to treat a concussion to certain age groups. They acknowledge the differences between concussions: age, cause, symptoms, variation of time period for healing. They do determine that sleep and rest is quite the remedy for this traumatic brain injury. Sure it seems simple, but maybe that is just it. I mean it was a TRAUMATIC injury, maybe the opposite will help: the simplicity of sleeping.



EBSCO-Management strategies and medication use for treating pediatric patients with concussions:

Concussion-Assessment and -Management Techniques Used by Athletic Trainers:

The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion:

Concussion care: Simple strategies, big payoffs:

Cognitive Rest: The Often Neglected Aspect of Concussion Management.

Current Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Concussion in Sport: A Comparison of Three New Guidelines.

The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature:


Only Kidding 🙂 


Getting down to Business


Drone Wars

by Michael Burnham-Fink

The article gives a unique perspective of a drone pilot, he explains the ins and outs of flying a drone over seas. This article is important for my use because it shows that he saw a very intimate side of targets. Showing that the drones can see things they should not and proving the Cracked article correct.

The Wonderful World of Drones

by Sara Sorcher

Sara Sorcher shows how drones are used on the domestic side. The author denies that the drones can be used to spy. I will use this argue that the government tries to hind the truth in order to use these drones across the country.

Unmanned Drones are Flying High in the Military/Aerospace Sector

R. Schneiderman

This article lays out the potential future of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The article explains of the technology will advance rapidly. I think this will help show how the governments policies on drones will not keep up with the rapid advancements, providing loopholes in favor of the government.

Obama Defends Drone Use

Carol Lee

This article lays out the opinions of the leaders in country. The author shows the president supporting Drones as a tool to gain information on the nations enemy. I will use this article to demonstrate how domestic policy will be used in order to use drones against the American citizens.

Police Drones: A Legal Studies Case Study   

Ben Neil

This shows many different ways drones have been used to help aid police in arrest. The most important case is one where a man arrested for the illegally growing cannabis. I will use this to show that the government can spy on us, even without regards to our constitutional rights.

Deadly Drones, Due Process, and the Fourth Amendment

William Funk

The author looks into the constitutionality of striking against U.S. citizen both foreign and domestic. Looking into many laws including the fourth amendment. This will help further explain whether the strikes are legal based on existing laws and the constitution.


Surveillance and violence from afar: The Politics of Drones and Liminal security scapes

Tyler Wall

The article explains how the use of drones dehumanize the individuals in the country. The Drones take away the natural rights of citizens. This will continue to show how the government can spy on individuals without consequence. The use of the drones in America makes it hard because with the density of communities spying is much easier, especially if it is ‘unintentional’.

The Legality of Armed Drone Strikes against U.S. Citizens within the United States

Marshall Thompson

The law review shows that precedents by the supreme court have been set against the government using drones against Americans. The continued use of the drones around the country show that government is finding loopholes. I will use this to show how the government can find loopholes to spy on the citizens, and also use more explains where people were arrested on charges found by drones


Using Unmanned Aerial Systems within the homeland: Security Game-Changer?

U.S. Government Printing Office

The hearing shows that the government is trying to protect out rights in the best way they can. The conversation shows the opinions of our countries leaders. I will use to further elaborate how the leaders want use these on American soils.

Are We Done Yet?

The quest of knowledge is coming to an end. As this research blog comes to an end and we begin writing the paper that follows, it is time to review all of the sources I was able to dig up.

“So close I can feel it”

Beginning with the cracked article that started this headache.

“Five Facts Everyone Gets Wrong About Depression” written by Mark Hill

I used this article as a springboard for my research. Mark talked about 5 common facts that people get wrong about depression. (I fall into the I thought some of these were true)

“What is depression? What causes depression?” published on

I used this journal to help receive a better understanding of what being depressed means and what can cause depression.  It has help greatly since i know nothing really about depression as a disorder.


This was a study conducted to see what the long term effects of depression are and how they effect the individuals. I am using this study to see what depression does to a person’s mental and physical state.

” Been so sad for for so long”

“Influence of Life Stress on Depression: Moderation by a Polymorphism in the 5-Htt Gene” written by Terrie Moffitt

Looking into what life events can influence depression to form. How stressful life events can lead to depression.  I will be using this to show how certain things can also lead one to become depressed.

“Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys” Published by the World Health Organization

This article talks about how depression is a public problem worldwide. This talks about how depression is not just effecting America but is other places across the world too. I will use this to show light on how depression effects people everyone.

With all of these articles, journals, and websites i was able to gather some quality information (hopefully will make writing the paper easy peasy) But given i will most likely be looking up some more just to add some girth to my paper.



The Great Sources

Chris Bucholz. “5 Environmental Myths Too Many People Still Believe.” Cracked

This is my original Cracked article, where all my research started. It is a list of five environmental myths the public still believes that Cracked claims aren’t true. It was from here that I chose my controversial topic that local food isn’t much better for the environment than imported food.

Aaron L Brody. “Food Miles and Packaging: A Contrarian View.” Food Technology

In this article, the author talks about his opinion on food packaging and food miles. He talks about a study where consumers were offered a lot of different foods in safer and better packaging. Honestly, this source did not contribute much to my research.

David Coley, Mark Howard, Michael Winter. “Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: A comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches.” Agriculture and Human Values. FoodPolicy.

This article compares two food distribution systems based on the emissions of carbon for each system. The two different systems are a large scale vegetable box system and a system where the consumer travels to a local farm shop. They talk about a study based on fuel and energy use data that happened in the UK. This study they talk about is very helpful to the research for this topic.

Steven Schnell. “Food miles, local eating, and community supported agriculture: putting local food in its place” Agriculture and Human Values.

This article talks about the origin and the meaning of the term “food miles” and how it affects the environment and food economy. He examines interviews with a variety of farming families and agriculture members to show how complex the farming market is. He argues that the idea of “food miles” is way overrated, and that there is much more to the market. This article is very helpful and I will be using it a lot for my paper.

Sara DeWeerdt. “Is Local Food Better?” Worldwatch Institute.

DeWeerdt first talks about what makes food “local food.” Food miles are a good way to measure how far food has traveled but it doesn’t measure exactly the environmental impact. Dairy products have also been shown to cause way more of a negative environmental impact than other foods. This article isn’t very long but it does give information on a good study.

Jeff Howe. “Buying Local Versus Imported Food.” Dovetail Partners Inc.

A study done in New Zealand has shown that the environmental impacts of buying local food is sometimes greater than the impacts of buying imported food. The author concludes that food miles are not the best source of measuring environmental impact but it is a step forward in the research being done on this topic.

Lucie Serieix, Paul Kledal. “Organic food consumers’ trade-offs between local or imported, conventional or organic products: a qualitative study in Shanghai.” International Journal of Consumer.

This paper talks about a study done in Shanghai that compares the tradeoffs of organic food product customers. Most of the interviewees in China are not able to tell the difference between imported and local food. This article is somewhat helpful because it talks about my issue in a different part of the world.

Erica Barnett. “Local v. Imported–How Do We Decide?” Worldchanging.

At first, the article talks about the so-called benefits of buying local food. It then switches gears and talks about the carbon emissions for local food being at the same level or possibly a bit higher than imported food.


Whew… finally done.








This About Sums It Up


The first article that I found that would be helpful was an article posted from Johns Hopkins about if plastic releases deadly toxins. The article is from 2008 and is called Question and Answer: Bisphenol A and Plastics. The article is just questions that are answered by Johns Hopkins professors. The rest of my articles I got from searching the Oklahoma State University Library databases either ProQuest or EBSCO. I found a couple of articles I found from popular magazines which I thought would bring an interesting twist to my paper since popular magazines are where most people get their information. The first article is called New Alarm Bells About Chemicals and Cancer by The New York Times. It had a good quote in it that says, “The food industry has already been fighting legislation in the Senate backed by Dianne Feinstein of California that would ban bisphenol-A, commonly found in plastics and better known as BPA, from food and beverage containers”. The next article I found from a popular magazine is Does Plastic Pose Health Problems in the Microwave? And it is by The Wall Street Journal. It talks about the safest ways to microwave plastic which is by reading the warning label put on my manufacturer’s.The next article I have is Another article I found on ProQuest is called BPA Plastic Containers and Wraps Do Not Always Mix Well With Microwaves by Environmental Nutrition. The article talks about how plastic wrap can actually melt to food in the microwave, and this is why it should never come into contact with food.In the Problem With Plastic by US News and World Report. It talks about the problems with BPA leaching out into our food or from baby bottles. In Plastic Bottles-Another View that is written by Children’s Health Alert. The interesting thing about this article is that it says the FDA made a mistake in reviewing some studies that it made.


I then found the article Microwaving Food in Plastic: Dangerous or Not? from the Harvard’s Women’s Health Watch. This article tells how it is more likely for chemicals to leak out of plastics during the microwaving of fatty foods. The next article I found was from the original article by It is called Microwaving Plastic and it is by The American Cancer Society. This article talks about the e-mail that was originally sent out to start the entire microwaving plastic released deadly chemicals debate. The article then goes on to talk about the facts behind the e-mail. All of this pertains to my investigation because they are all talking about the warning of plastic leaking into food and how to properly microwave food using plastic. Most of my articles have gone against the article, and says that chemicals do leak out of plastic. However, most of them say that if you read the warning label on plastic then it should be alright to use them in the microwave as long as the manufacturer says that it is ok.

thats it

Blog Post 9: Swimming in Sources.

Well, folks, it’s been nearly six weeks. Six weeks of sources, questions, hypotheses, blog posts, and searching. I’m sure that at some point during the past 40 days each of us felt sort of like we were drowning in sources and information like this…


However, I’m proud to say that we’ve finally surfaced. We’ve gotten our bearings and we’re ready to begin articulating our own arguments. Congratulations, everyone. I’m quite proud of us. Now, allow me to introduce you to some of my new friends who helped guide me through this process…

1.) “8 Election Myths You Probably Believe”

Myth #7: “Campaign Ads Run Mindless Attack Ads Instead of Giving Us Substance.” is what started this whole endeavor. The myth claims that people reject negativity because they believe it is disdainful and uncivil. The authors of this article, however, counter-argue that negative ads actually grip our attention and spur us onto political engagement. This claim is the basis of my argument.

2.) “The Moderating Influence of Political Involvement on Voters’ Attitudes Toward Attack Ads.” – George W. Stone, Jeffrey G. Blodgett, Japhet Nkonge and Kathryn T. Cort (Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice).

The authors of this article stated that the aim of their study was to determine the productivity of attack ads in reaching different types of political audiences.  Ultimately, the authors of this article found that those who are not as politically involved viewed the negative ads as more credible, since they pointed out the weaknesses of one candidate, while those who were highly politically involved were more skeptical. This article ultimately reinforced the idea that negative ads motivate people, however, it also inspired me to examine how political sophistication plays a role in one’s perception of these negative ads.

3.) Going Negative: How Political Ads Shrink and Polarize the Electorate. Stephen Ansolabehere and Shanto Iyengar.

According to the authors’ conclusions in this book, “negative adverts also work better than positive ones” by electrifying each candidate’s partisan base, “so attacking has become nearly universal.” This book motivated me to include partisan bias as a heuristic and determiner for my hypothesis along with political involvement/sophistication.

4.) “Beyond Negativity: The Effects of Incivility on the Electorate.” – Deborah Jordan Brooks and John G. Geer (American Journal of Political Science).

This study surveyed a national sample of adults who recorded their responses to a series campaign ads, which the authors of this study produced These ads were based off of real campaign ads. These replications were designed to test three dimensions of campaign advertisements. Ultimately, the results of this study that agreed with my previous findings by declaring, “those least-liked, least-valued kinds of messages may modestly stimulate two things that we tend to care a great deal about as a society: political interest and improving likelihood to vote.”

5.) “Negative Political Advertising and Voting Intent: The Role of Involvement and Alternative Information Sources.” -Ronald J. Faber, Albert R. Tims, and Kay G. Schmitt (Journal of Advertising). 

Faber, Tims, and Schmitt concluded that negative ads impact various types of voters in a multitude of ways. Therefore, it is important to remember the scope in which these conclusions are being discussed. I really enjoyed this article because it assured me that my determiners were building on each other to create a conversation that is aimed at specific demographics of the electorate.

6.)”Examining the Possible Corrosive Impact of Negative Advertising on Citizens’ Attitudes toward Politics.” – Robert A. Jackson, Jeffery J. Mondak, and Robert Huckfeldt (Political Research Quarterly).

The authors employed data indicators from the 2002 WiscAds Project and from the 2002 Exercising Citizenship in American Democracy Survey to determine both ad exposure and ad tone as perceived by nearly 2,00 random participants from two national surveys both pre-election and post-election. This article didn’t focus on voter turnout, however, it did put things into perspective for me. It merely gave me new information about ad tone and ad exposure, which will ultimately make me a more informed researcher.

7.) The Persuasive Power of Campaign Advertising. Travis N. Ridout and Michael M. Franz.

This book specifically focused on the emotional appeals made in attack ads on television. Rather than using age, education, political sophistication, or partisan bias as determiners, this book focused on how the medium through which these negative ads were conveyed mobilized voters. This also helped narrow the focus of my study.

8.) “Do Negative Campaigns Mobilize or Suppress Turnout? Clarifying the Relationship between Negativity and Participation” – Kim Fridkin Kahn and Patrick J. Kenney (The American Political Science Review).

This article is basically the perfect summary of my hypothesis. It concludes that partisan voters or those who are more politically sophisticated are likely to go to the polls no matter what. However, Independents and those who are not as politically sophisticated are more likely to be motivated to vote based on the negative ads that instantly grab their attention.

So, that’s who I’ve met, what I’ve learned, and where I am. I’m excited to begin organizing all of this into an argument of my own. I can’t wait to see what each of you has developed… Now, just hang in there. We’re really close to finishing the race.